The Matrix as metaphysics (by David Chalmers)




The Matrix as metaphysics (by David Chalmers)


The Matrix as Metaphysics

by David Chalmers

CogNovo Network

URL: users.manchester.edu/Facstaff/SSNaragon/Online/texts/201/Chalmers,%20MatrixMetaphysics.pdf


Second-order cybernetics


Keywords: Thinking about thinking, understanding understanding, knowing the knower, seeing the seer, Dṛg-Dṛśya-Viveka.

Open HTML5 application in full-screen: cognovo.net/2nd-oder-cybernetics/

Associated source code (HTML5 Canvas)


Autopoiesis

Autopoiesis (from Greek αὐτo (auto) meaning ‘self’ + ποίησις (poiesis) meaning ‘creation/production’) is term used to describe a given system capable of reproducing and maintaining itself. The term was coined in 1972 by Chilean biologists Humberto Maturana and Francisco Varela to describe the self-maintaining chemistry of living cells. Since then the concept has been used in various scientific disciplines (e.g., cognitive psychology, neuroscience, complex systems theory, computer science, sociology, etc.) and also in various artworks.


The original definition can be found in “Autopoiesis and Cognition: the Realization of the Living” (1973):

“An autopoietic machine is a machine organized (defined as a unity) as a network of processes of production (transformation and destruction) of components which: (i) through their interactions and transformations continuously regenerate and realize the network of processes (relations) that produced them; and (ii) constitute it (the machine) as a concrete unity in space in which they (the components) exist by specifying the topological domain of its realization as such a network.” (p.78)

” … the space defined by an autopoietic system is self-contained and cannot be described by using dimensions that define another space. When we refer to our interactions with a concrete autopoietic system, however, we project this system on the space of our manipulations and make a description of this projection.” (p.89)

Norbert Wiener - Cybernetics (HTML5 eBook)

References

Maturana, H., & Varela, F.. (1980). Autopoiesis and Cognition : The Realization of the Living (Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science). Living in Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science Vol 42 D Reidel Dordrecht

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1007/978-94-009-8947-4
DOI URL
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Maturana, H. R.. (2002). Autopoiesis, Structural Coupling and Cognition : A history of these and other notions in the biology of cognition. Cybernetics & Human Knowing

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1111/j.1471-1842.2008.00767.x
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Beer, R. D.. (2004). Autopoiesis and Cognition in the Game of Life. Artificial Life, 10(3), 309–326.

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1162/1064546041255539
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Luisi, P. L.. (2003). Autopoiesis: a review and a reappraisal.. Die Naturwissenschaften, 90(2), 49–59.

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1007/s00114-002-0389-9
DOI URL
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Second-order cybernetics references

Heylighen, F., & Joslyn, C.. (2004). Cybernetics and Second-Order Cybernetics. In Encyclopedia of Physical Science and Technology

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1016/b0-12-227410-5/00161-7
DOI URL
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von Foerster, H., & von Foerster, H.. (2006). Ethics and Second-Order Cybernetics. In Understanding Understanding

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1007/0-387-21722-3_14
DOI URL
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Scott, B.. (2004). Second-order cybernetics: an historical introduction. Kybernetes

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1108/03684920410556007
DOI URL
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Glanville, R.. (2004). The purpose of second-order cybernetics. Kybernetes

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1108/03684920410556016
DOI URL
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Froese, T.. (2010). From cybernetics to second-order cybernetics: A comparative analysis of their central ideas. Constructivist Foundations
Garland, E. L.. (2007). The meaning of mindfulness: A second-order cybernetics of stress, metacognition, and coping. Complementary Health Practice Review

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1177/1533210107301740
DOI URL
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Krippendorff, K.. (2007). The cybernetics of design and the design of cybernetics. Kybernetes

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1108/03684920710827364
DOI URL
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Krippendorff, K.. (1996). A second-order cybernetics of otherness. Systems Research

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1002/(sici)1099-1735(199609)13:3<311::aid-sres106>3.0.co;2-o
DOI URL
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Heylighen, F.. (2001). Cybernetics and second order cybernetics. In Encyclopedia of Physical Science & Technology
Bishop, J. M., & Nasuto, J. S.. (2005). Second-order cybernetics and enactive perception. Kybernetes

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1108/03684920510614696
DOI URL
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Sweeting, B.. (2016). Design research as a variety of second-order Cybernetic practice. Constructivist Foundations
Froese, T.. (2011). From second-order cybernetics to enactive cognitive science: Varela’s turn from epistemology to phenomenology. Systems Research and Behavioral Science

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1002/sres.1116
DOI URL
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The “Brain in a Vat” Gedankenexperiment

For the full version visit: christopher-germann.de/the-brain-in-a-vat-gedankenexperiment/


References

Chalmers, D.. (2018). The matrix as metaphysics. Mind and Matter

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195311105.003.0013
DOI URL
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Cosmelli, D., & Thompson, E.. (2013). Embodiment or Envatment?: Reflections on the Bodily Basis of Consciousness. In Enaction

Plain numerical DOI: 10.7551/mitpress/9780262014601.003.0014
DOI URL
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Cavallaro, D.. (2004). The brain in a vat in cyberpunk: The persistence of the flesh. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C :Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1016/j.shpsc.2004.03.005
DOI URL
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Brueckner, A.. (1992). If i am a brain in a vat, then i am not a brain in a vat. Mind

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1093/mind/101.401.123
DOI URL
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Hickey, L. P.. (2005). The ​ Brain in a Vat​ Argument. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
Huemer, M.. (2006). Direct Realism and the Brain-in-a-Vat Argument. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research

Plain numerical DOI: 10.2307/2653657
DOI URL
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Smart, J. J. C.. (2004). The brain in the vat and the question of metaphysical realism. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C :Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1016/j.shpsc.2004.03.003
DOI URL
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Sprevak, M., & McLeish, C.. (2004). Magic, semantics, and Putnam’s vat brains. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C :Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1016/j.shpsc.2004.03.007
DOI URL
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Black, T.. (2002). A moorean response to brain-in-a-vat scepticism. Australasian Journal of Philosophy

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1080/724051028
DOI URL
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Greco, J.. (2009). Skepticism about the External World. In The Oxford Handbook of Skepticism

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1093/oxfordhb/9780195183214.003.0006
DOI URL
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Bostrom, N.. (2005). The simulation argument: Reply to Weatherson. Philosophical Quarterly

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1111/j.0031-8094.2005.00387.x
DOI URL
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Manson, N. C.. (2004). Brains, vats, and neurally-controlled animats. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C :Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1016/j.shpsc.2004.03.004
DOI URL
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Proctor, R. N., & Schiebinger, L.. (2008). Agnotology: the making and unmaking of ignorance. Organization Studies

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1177/0306312713484646
DOI URL
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A quantum psychophysics perspective on bistable perception

www.Qbism.art is an interdisciplinary web-project that synthesises a plurality of perspectives from cognitive psychology, neuroscience, quantum physics, philosophy, computer science, and digital art into a holistic transdisciplinary Gestalt. You can view a series of animated digital Qbism artworks below (the neologism ‘Qbism’ is a composite lexeme composed of ‘Quantum & Cubism’).

Abstract algorithmic digital art

Digital algorithmic artwork by Christopher B. Germann

The Chinese Room Argument against genuine artificial intelligence

Keywords: Syntax versus semantics; the problem of symbol grounding; meaning and AI, creativity and AI, intelligence and AI, embodied cognition, disembodied computation.
URL: rintintin.colorado.edu/~vancecd/phil201/Searle.pdf

See also: plato.stanford.edu/entries/chinese-room/


For a related topic visit my domain: brain-in-a-vat.ga (*swf Flash plugin required)
alternatively (no external plugin required – just JavaScript): christopher-germann.de/the-brain-in-a-vat-gedankenexperiment/


References

Moural, J.. (2003). The Chinese room argument. In John searle

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511613999.010
DOI URL
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Damper, R. I.. (2006). The logic of Searle’s Chinese room argument. Minds and Machines

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1007/s11023-006-9031-5
DOI URL
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Anderson, D., & Copeland, B. J.. (2002). Artificial life and the Chinese room argument.. Artificial Life

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1162/106454602321202435
DOI URL
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Harnad, S.. (1989). Minds, machines and searle. Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Artificial Intelligence

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1080/09528138908953691
DOI URL
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Nute, D.. (2011). A logical hole the Chinese room avoids. Minds and Machines

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1007/s11023-011-9244-0
DOI URL
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Waskan, J.. (2006). Views into the Chinese Room: New Essays on Searle and Artificial Intelligence. Philosophical Review

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1215/00318108-114-2-277
DOI URL
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Harnad, S.. (2005). Searle’s Chinese Room Argument. In Encyclopedia of Philosophy
Jacquette, D.. (2006). Adventures in the Chinese Room. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research

Plain numerical DOI: 10.2307/2107850
DOI URL
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Rodríguez, D., Hermosillo, J., & Lara, B.. (2012). Meaning in artificial agents: The symbol grounding problem revisited. Minds and Machines

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1007/s11023-011-9263-x
DOI URL
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Wakefield, J. C.. (2003). The Chinese room argument reconsidered: Essentialism, indeterminacy, and strong AI. Minds and Machines

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1023/A:1022947527614
DOI URL
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Block, N.. (1995). The Mind as the Software of the Brain. In An Invitation to Cognitive Science: Thinking
Teng, N. Y.. (2002). A cognitive analysis of the Chinese room argument. Philosophical Psychology

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1080/09515080050128141
DOI URL
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3D Webdesign: Parametric Geometry

Source Code

Gilhooly, K. J., Georgiou, G., & Devery, U.. (2013). Incubation and creativity: Do something different. Thinking and Reasoning

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1080/13546783.2012.749812
DOI URL
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Czernecka, K., & Szymura, B.. (2008). Alexithymia – Imagination – Creativity. Personality and Individual Differences

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1016/j.paid.2008.05.019
DOI URL
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Pérez-Fabello, M. J., Campos, A., & Meana, J. C.. (2014). Vividness and Control of Mental Imagery and the Components of In-Depth Drawing. Creativity Research Journal

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1080/10400419.2014.901097
DOI URL
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Pérez-Fabello, M. J., Campos, A., & Felisberti, F. M.. (2018). Object-spatial imagery in fine arts, psychology, and engineering. Thinking Skills and Creativity

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1016/j.tsc.2017.12.005
DOI URL
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Schwitzgebel, E.. (2002). How well do we know our own conscious experience? The case of visual imagery. Journal of Consciousness Studies

Leung, C., & Salga, A.. (2010). Enabling WebGL

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1145/1772690.1772933
DOI URL
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Parisi, T.. (2012). WebGL up and running. O’Reilly

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1017/CBO9781107415324.004
DOI URL
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Matsuda, K., & Lea, R.. (2013). WebGL Programming Guide: Interactive 3D Graphics Programming with WebGL (OpenGL). Interactive 3D Graphics Programming with WebGL
OpenGL Insights. (2012). OpenGL Insights

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1201/b12288
DOI URL
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Daniel Adler, D. M. and others. (2016). 3D Visualization Using OpenGL. R Package Version 0.95.1441
Congote, J., Segura, A., Kabongo, L., Moreno, A., Posada, J., & Ruiz, O.. (2011). Interactive visualization of volumetric data with WebGL in real-time

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1145/2010425.2010449
DOI URL
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Visual Perception: Digital Afterimages

Afterimage 3D (WebGL API)


van Boxtel, J. J. A., Tsuchiya, N., & Koch, C.. (2010). Opposing effects of attention and consciousness on afterimages. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0913292107
DOI URL
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Lou, L.. (2001). Effects of voluntary attention on structured afterimages. Perception

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1068/p3127
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Powell, G., Sumner, P., & Bompas, A.. (2015). The effect of eye movements and blinks on afterimage appearance and duration. Journal of Vision

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1167/15.3.20
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Utz, S., & Carbon, C. C.. (2015). Afterimages are biased by top-down information. Perception

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1177/0301006615596900
DOI URL
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Wede, J., & Francis, G.. (2007). Attentional effects on afterimages: Theory and data. Vision Research

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1016/j.visres.2007.04.024
DOI URL
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Manovich, L.. (1995). The paradoxes of digital photography. Photography after Photography
Hosoya, T., Baccus, S. A., & Meister, M.. (2005). Dynamic predictive coding by the retina. Nature

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1038/nature03689
DOI URL
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